Nil per os, Latin for “nothing by mouth”
Nothing per mouth or NPO refers to the direction of having nothing to eat or drink during a time period before surgery. Usually begins midnight the day before.
Medications are given to induce an altered state of consciousness that minimizes pain and discomfort, used in conjunction with local anesthesia during minor surgeries such as biopsies, minor fracture repair, colonoscopies, EGD, and dental surgery.
Placement of a flexible plastic tube in the trachea to protect and support the airway and allow for mechanical or artificial respiration. This is usually done when the patient is asleep.